Showcase: Wisdom

  • Wealth and Wisdom: a sermon by Doug Shackleford +

    Doug Shackleford taught in 2004 on wealth and worship. http://sermons.biblechurch.org/2004_10_03.final.mp3 Read More
  • MARRIAGE INTENTIONALITY by Wisdom Hunters +

    "Marriage should be honored by all." Hebrews 13:4 Successful marriages require intentionality. Indeed, most marriages that please the Lord do Read More
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Don  Carson

http://www.esvbible.org/search/Exodus+22/

http://www.esvbible.org/search/John+1/

http://www.esvbible.org/search/Job+40/

http://www.esvbible.org/search/2+Corinthians+10/

WE SHALL DO WELL to a little of the case law found in the Pentateuch — beginning now with some of the laws of restitution found in Exodus 22:1-15.

Thieves must not only pay back what they stole, but something extra as well (22:1, 4). This extra amount is not only a punishment for them, but compensates the victim for the sense of being violated, or for the inconvenience of being deprived of whatever had been stolen. Zacchaeus understood the principle, and his repentance was demonstrated by his resolution to make restitution fourfold, and give generously to the poor (Luke 19:1-10).

If a thief cannot pay back what he has stolen, the law demanded that he be sold into slavery to pay for his theft (22:3). Slavery in this culture had economic roots.

There were no modern bankruptcy laws, so a person might sell himself into slavery to deal with outstanding debts. But in Israel, slavery was not normally to be open-ended: it was supposed to come to an end in seven-year cycles (21:2-4).

The succeeding verses lay out the restitution to be made for various offenses, with exceptions included to make the law flexible enough to handle the hard cases or delicate cases (e.g., 22:14-15). In some instances, conflicting claims must be brought before a judge, who is charged with discerning who is telling the truth. For instance, if someone gives his neighbor claims that they were stolen from him by a thief, a judge must determine whether the neighbor is telling the truth, or is himself a thief. If the thief is caught, he must pay back double. If the judge determines that the neighbor is a liar, the neighbor must himself pay back double the amount (22:7-9).

When the crime is theft, restitution most directly preserves the notion of justice. Where thieves are simply sent to prison, it will not be long before experts debate whether the purpose of prison is remedial, therapeutic, educational, custodial (for the preservation of society), or vengeful. A sentence directly related to the crime preserves the primacy of justice. The same is true, of course, of the much maligned lex talionis, the "eye for an eye" statute (21:23-25) that was not an excuse for a personal vendetta but a way of giving the courts punishments that exactly fitted the crime. This sense of justice needing to be satisfied permeates the Old Testament treatments of sin and transgression as well, ultimately preparing the way for an understanding of the cross as the sacrifice that meets the demands of justice (cf. Rom. 3:25-26).

Exodus 22; John 1; Job 40; 2 Corinthians 10

Reflections to Consider

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Publications

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Music

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Audio & Video

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Favorites

  • The Cleansing of the Temple by RC Sproul +

    http://www.ligonier.org/account/dashboard/sermon/151/download/ In this incident of Jesus cleansing the temple, Dr. Sproul points out that the activities being performed were legitimate, Read More
  • The Prodigals by Kevin DeYoung +

    During the Gospel Coalition conference in 2013, Kevin DeYoung gave a thoughtful, spirit-led sermon on Luke 15. He was able Read More
  • Centered on one or the other by Ray Ortlund +

    ". . . a friend of tax collectors and sinners!" Luke 7:34 What does it mean for a church to be gospel-centered? That's Read More
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Hidden Blessings

  • Book of God, Walter Wangerin +

    I was in a leadership turbogroup during the spring of 2007. At Randy's suggestion, I listened to Walter Wangerin's audio Read More
  • Martin Luther’s Quiet Time, Walter Trobisch +

    Martin Luther had a barber named Peter Beskendorf who asked his world-famous customer and doctor of theology, "Dr. Luther, how Read More
  • Clay Enoch Devotional Sculpture +

    Clay Enoch, a sculptor in Colorado Springs, Colorado, creates powerful bronze sculptures with Biblical themes: Creation, Praise, Contrition, Still Water, Read More
  • Without Faith...Can I Survive? +

    Examine yourselves to see whether you are living in the faith. Test yourselves. Do you not realize that Jesus Christ Read More
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